Slaughtering machinery and equipment need to be continuously upgraded -- the gap between domestic meat processing machinery and international advanced level is narrowing
Meat processing has always been a key development project in China's food processing industry.
Meat processing has always been a key development project in China's food processing industry. As an essential food on the table of the people, meat is becoming more and more diversified in processing types and styles, which is definitely due to the meat processing equipment.
At present, there are nearly 200 meat processing machinery and equipment manufacturing enterprises in China, which can produce more than 90% of the meat processing equipment, covering almost all the processing fields of the meat industry, including 7 enterprises with an output value of more than 100 million yuan, more than 10 enterprises with an output value of more than 50 million yuan, and nearly 30 enterprises with an output value of more than 30 million yuan. Many equipment have been gradually localized, and many enterprises have begun to expand overseas markets. However, the technical level of most enterprises is relatively backward, and the technical content is relatively low, except for the equipment and simple processing production lines produced by a few enterprises in cooperation with European and American equipment manufacturers.
Although China's meat processing industry has a long history, it is not long to adopt mechanized and mass production mode.
At the beginning of the founding of the People's Republic of China, Chongqing, Wuhan and other large meat processing plants were established. The application of hanging rail slaughtering lines, hand-held hemp appliances, hair scrapers, and splitting electric saws has made meat processing a step towards semi-mechanization. At that time, while introducing slaughtering processing technology and equipment from the Soviet Union, some Western-style sausage processing equipment was also introduced.
In the 1960s, through technological innovation, some enterprises developed and improved some processing equipment and production processes by themselves. In 1965, the first meat processing machinery factory was established in Wuhan.
Since the 1970s, a number of meat processing machinery plants and workshops have been established in Shanghai, Tianjin, Zhejiang, Shandong, Anhui, Hunan and Jiangsu. Since 1978, it has successfully trial-produced pig hemp motor, suspension conveyor, blanching machine, peeling machine, bridge split machine, wool machine, vacuum small intestine suction machine and large intestine turning machine, pig meat segmentation machine, conveyor, etc. During this period, most of the large and medium-sized meat joint plants adopted automatic track flow production lines for slaughtering and processing, and basically realized mechanized production.
From 1972 to 1984, the country produced more than 20000 sets of meat processing machinery and equipment, mainly slaughtering and processing equipment and meat products processing equipment, such as meat grinder, blender, gear sausage machine and oven. The meatball production line and meat floss production line developed by Shanghai Food Company, the preserved meat production line in Jingjiang, Jiangsu Province, the solar sausage grill of the Emperor of Guangzhou, and the braised chicken production line in Dezhou, Shandong Province all have a certain scale and level.
In addition, since the early 1980s, more than 30 meat joint plants and meat products factories in Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai and other places have introduced a large number of advanced livestock and poultry slaughtering and meat products processing equipment from Germany, the Netherlands, Denmark and other countries. This is the largest import with the longest duration, the largest amount of foreign exchange and the largest scale in China's meat processing history.
According to incomplete statistics, by 1996, the national investment in the introduction of meat processing machinery and equipment reached billions of yuan.
Reviewing the development of meat processing machinery and equipment in China over the past 60 years, it is the most important achievement to improve the localization rate and automation level of livestock and poultry slaughtering machinery and equipment.
Various slaughtering machines include: pigs, cattle, sheep, poultry and other different categories according to the characteristics of raw materials; According to the process flow, it is divided into different parts, such as waiting for slaughter and shower, traction and transportation, stunning and fainting, lifting and hanging, stabbing and bleeding, cleaning, scalding, roughening, shaving (hair removal), hairing, scraping, polishing, peeling, synchronous inspection, splitting and cutting, by-product treatment, sterilization and disinfection, and precooling. In addition, there are conveyor, cutting saw, bone and meat separator, material separator, meat and meat packaging equipment and other bone cutting machines.
With the strong support of the governments at all levels for the research and development of the equipment manufacturing industry in the livestock and poultry slaughtering and processing industry, a large number of domestic slaughtering and processing technologies and equipment have achieved technological progress, including vacuum blood collection devices, automatic temperature-control steam scalding tunnels, efficient hair removal technology and equipment, caterpillar type U-type hair remover, automatic positioning accurate splitting machine, electrical stimulator, etc., which has improved the automation and modernization of slaughtering production and the localization rate, To a certain extent, it has got rid of foreign technology monopoly and restriction.
In addition, some technical equipment, such as efficient hair removal technology and equipment, have achieved a major breakthrough in the field of raw material processing of traditional Chinese meat products.
Technological progress has invested more than 10 billion yuan annually
In the late 1990s, a new round of expansion, new construction, technological transformation and equipment upgrading appeared in meat processing machinery and equipment enterprises on the basis of restructuring. The industry investment was more than 10 billion yuan per year, mainly focusing on the technological progress of slaughtering and processing.
In the first stage, it included poultry slaughtering line, followed by pig, cattle and sheep slaughtering line, but the imported equipment accounted for a large proportion. For example, pig slaughtering and processing has introduced production lines such as three-point fainting, hollow bleeding, steam scalding and flame burning from Germany and the Netherlands; Full-automatic slaughtering, depilation, cooling, weighing and specification division production lines have been introduced for poultry slaughtering and processing. The production capacity, production scale and technical equipment level of slaughtering and processing of livestock and poultry are gradually approaching the international advanced level.
While introducing foreign advanced equipment, domestic machinery factories also began to digest, absorb and imitate imported equipment, and then develop their own. In 2004, more than 60 meat processing machinery plants in the country were able to produce most of the western-style meat processing equipment, basically meeting the production process and sanitary requirements of general meat processing plants.
In recent years, the gap between domestic meat processing machinery and the international advanced level has been further narrowed. Complete sets of technologies and equipment such as meat cold processing have achieved a major leap. The export volume has continued to increase, with an increase of at least 25%. Some equipment has even entered the most advanced German market of meat machinery.
On the basis of learning foreign advanced technology and summarizing domestic actual production experience, we should improve and develop slaughtering equipment as soon as possible that meets the national conditions of our country, adapts to the development of domestic poultry industry, and the technical level reaches or is close to the advanced level of foreign countries in the same period, so as to win a place in the highly competitive slaughtering market.